A monthly injection of buprenorphine BUP-XR is more effective than a placebo for treating opioid addiction, according to the results of a new study. This formulation is the extended release version.
A daily dose version of buprenorphine was approved by the FDA (US Food and Drug Administration) in 2002. It has been an effective treatment for opioid use disorder. Daily doses mean patients must commit to taking it each day; they may start to experience cravings for opioids once they get close to the end of the 24-hour cycle when they can take more medication.
Medication Assisted Therapy and Treatment for Opioid Addiction
Buprenorphine and methadone are both used in MAT (Medication Assisted Therapy) to treat opioid addiction. These medications are used in combination with behavioral counseling as part of a “whole patient” approach. The medications are used to control cravings and clients work with a counselor to develop new ways of thinking and responding to life stresses.
Extended Release Buprenorphine Called Sublocade
The extended-release version of buprenorphine was approved by the FDA in November 2017, which is being marketed under the brand name Sublocade. Approval was based on positive results in a Phase III human subjects study. The study has been published in The Lancet to make it available to the wider scientific community.
Double-Blind Study Conducted
Researchers divided 200 participants in the randomized, double-blind study into three groups. All of them had a mean duration of opioid use of between 11 and 12 years. Two of the groups were given different monthly doses of BUP-XR and one was given a placebo.
Both groups who were given BUP-XR reported “substantial portions of participants” abstaining from opioids. They also experienced relief from opioid withdrawal symptoms and control from cravings for opioids without having to take medication on a daily basis.
It was the late 1990’s when big pharma was making promises to the medical community that addiction would not occur in patients prescribed opioid pain relievers. A few short decades later and the Department of Health and Human Services declared a public health emergency for the ensuing opioid crisis. Opioid withdrawal, abuse, and treatment have since become the focus of Arizona opioid rehab centers statewide.
A combination of factors has led to the explosion of opioid addiction. Many of the reasons lead back to the over prescribing of painkillers, ease of access to medication, and increased availability of street versions of opioid-based drugs. One factor not mentioned enough, however, is the impact opioid withdrawal symptoms have on a patient’s ability to break their addiction.
What are Opioids?
Opioids, also known as opiates, are a class of drugs made from the opium poppy plant. The opium is used to make medications which in turn are prescribed for treating pain. Examples of opioid medications include codeine, morphine, amphetamine, oxycodone, hydrocodone, and fentanyl.
Heroin, an illegal opioid drug, is also derived from a natural substance found in the opium plant called morphine. Both prescription and illicit opioids are highly addictive and can easily cause dependency. The abuse of prescription and “street” opioids are largely responsible for the rise in the drug addiction statistics in the US.
How Common is Opioid Addiction?
Opioid addiction is a serious problem that affects millions of men and women in the US. The rise in abuse of both illicit and prescription opioids and the rate of overdose lead to the opioid crisis. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 66% of drug overdose deaths in 2016 involved opioids. Due to its addictive nature, comprehensive clinical treatment is usually required.
Opioid addiction treatment involves detoxification followed by therapy. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy as part of rehabilitation has proven effective in reducing the risk of relapse. However, overcoming opioid addiction can be one of the toughest parts of rehab because the process is accompanied by severe withdrawal symptoms.
Why is Opioid Withdrawal Challenging?
The National Institute on Drug Abuse refers to drug addiction as a complex disorder. The disorder affects brain functions making it very difficult for users to simply quit drug abuse. The brain is made up of natural opioid receptors that help in the release of dopamine and endorphins. These two hormones are responsible for feelings of pleasure.
Smoking, snorting, or injecting opioids frequently activates these receptors and make the brain want more and more of this euphoria. Over time, the receptors build a tolerance and require higher dosages of the drug. Eventually, sufferers begin to compulsively seek out the addictive substance despite of its effects on their health, relationships, or career.
Arizona Opioid Rehab and Detoxification
Opioid withdrawal starts with detoxification, or detox. Detox is a medically-assisted process of removing the drug and toxins from the body. During this time, the addicted individual will experience various physical, psychological, and emotional symptoms.
Some of them can be severe enough to make him or her want to quit rehab more than quitting their addiction. The severity of withdrawal symptoms has led many treatment centers to adopt a new approach involving the administration of one or more FDA-approved drugs to help reduce the effects of withdrawal symptoms.
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Opioid Withdrawal Timeline
The length of time it takes to withdraw from opioid varies from person to person. The withdrawal timeline usually depends on the type of opioid abused, level of addiction, dosage, frequency of use, and the body’s response to detoxification. It can take about 2 weeks to several months before the client stabilizes. In general, the first 7 days of detox is the worst for the patient seeking treatment.
Various physical and psychological symptoms may be experienced during this time, some of which can be severe. Symptoms usually set in between 6 to 30 hours after the last dose taken. Symptoms that become very intense at the 72-hour mark are known as post-acute withdrawal symptoms (PAWS).
The general withdrawal stages and time-frames are as follows:
Days 1-2: Restlessness, anxiety, runny nose, excess sweating, muscle aches, and trouble sleeping are symptoms that typically begin within the first 6 to 30 hours after the last dose. Patients may experience strong cravings and drug-seeking behaviors.
Days 3-5: Symptoms reach their peak and cravings can be overpowering. Post-acute withdrawal symptoms may appear during this time-frame. Patients may experience body tremors, nausea, vomiting, rapid heartbeat, abdominal cramps, or high blood pressure. Some other symptoms include chills, diarrhea, dilated pupils, stomachache, or blurred vision.
Days 6-7: Physical symptoms begin to improve, but psychological symptoms such as depression, irritability, and insomnia begin to set in. However, cravings are not as powerful as before. At this point in the detox process, patients first begin to stabilize.
Day 8 and later: Patients usually become remorseful and emotional during this stage. They may think or act irrationally and may feel hopeless. With emotional and psychological support from a therapist or counselor, you can better cope and overcome this phase.
Seeking the Right Treatment
Opioid rehab in Arizona treatment centers have evolved to treat the physical, mental, and emotional hurdles sufferers face when detoxifying from opioid abuse. The comprehensive approach yields higher success rates than individuals who only receive treatment for the physical symptoms of opioid withdrawal.
If you or someone you know is struggling with opioid addiction, let them know friends and family are there to support them along with specially trained experts who can help them break the addiction. The first step toward recovery is only a phone call away.
Increases in Opioid Overdoses in Arizona Lead to Spike in Organ Donations
In recent years, drug and opioid overdoses in Arizona have steadily risen. Interestingly enough, so have organ donations. Seeking help from an opioid addiction treatment center today can help lower your risk of becoming another statistic.
So, What is the Connection?
It was once thought that harvesting organs from an individual who suffered from an opioid or drug addiction while they were alive, held too many risks for the patient who would receive said organs. However, researchers have confirmed through recent studies that prove organs from drug-addicted individuals have almost the same transplant success rates as organs from overall healthy individuals.
With the recent spike in opioid-related deaths, there has also been a spike in organ donations, creating a tragic but hopeful realization. With the increase of overdose deaths, comes the increase of new life opportunities to patients waiting for new organs.
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If There is So Much Hope Found in These Studies, Why is This Seemingly Taboo?
First off, the opioid epidemic is a newer issue facing, not only in Arizona, but The United States as a whole. A recent study done by investigators at the University of Utah Health found that currently 110,000 people across the United States are lingering on organ transplant waiting lists. However, the increase in the opioid epidemic has paved the way for unexpected opportunities in increases of organ availability for donation.
The Annals of Medicine found that a major rise of organ donors who’s death occurred due to an overdose rose up to 13.4% in 2017, compared to the meager 1.1% that it was at in 2000. In Arizona alone, opioid-related deaths have seen a 74 percent increase in the last four years. These numbers suggests that with the rise in organ donations from drug-related overdoses, it could significantly improve our country’s organ shortage. Unfortunately, it also shows that there were a great many organs from opioid overdoses in Arizona that went unused before 2017, which could have saved numerous lives.
While these statistics are encouraging, there is a big question that remains.
Are These Organs Safe to Use For Transplants?
Up until recent years, it was not common practice for medical professionals to accept the use of organs from drug-induced deaths, as there were legitimate concerns for the success of the transplant and the patient who received it.
During an overdose, an individual can experience a drop in blood pressure, which reduces the supply of oxygen and holds the potential to affect the organs negatively. There have also been, and still are, potential risks of infection such as hepatitis C. Although there can be a slightly higher risk of those organs having hepatitis C, at only a 30% risk, it still scares off both medical professionals and patients. Recipients of these donors have shown through testing that patient and graft survival rates remain within the same percentage as those recipients who received organs from trauma or medical deaths.
Dr. Christine Durand from Johns Hopkins Medical School in Baltimore has done numerous studies on this topic and states that; “While it is natural for patients to be concerned when they hear that an organ has an increased risk of infection, the tests for the disease are so effective that the risk is low — for HIV, it is around one in 10 000. For hepatitis C, there is a cure available to treat the recipient if an infection is passed on.”
While these studies were created to better understand the effects these specific types of transplants can have on the receiver, they also stand to offer more insight and knowledge for the patient. Even though having an organ transplant surgery is often necessary to continue having a quality of life, it can still be a daunting thing for any patient to consider. The topic can weigh even heavier when the fear of receiving an organ from a former drug user could mean. The United Network for Organ Sharing policy requires that patients be fully aware of any circumstances of potentially higher risk donations so they can best decide whether or not to accept it.
Opioid Addiction Treatment Can Help Prolong Your Life
While the spike in organ transplants is good news, the method to which they have become so readily available is not. An organ comes with a story unique and all its own. This new organ could hold the potential for a fresh start, a promise for a continued journey, and the hope of a healthy and happy life.
But, even before those organs are given to someone else, the person struggling with addiction has options available to them so that they don’t become another number in these staggering statistics.
If opioid addiction is prevalent in an individual’s life, they have ways to begin moving forward and beginning recovery today. There are numerous opioid addiction treatment centers within Arizona that offer a multitude of treatment options and programs. Don’t let the numbers and addiction dictate the journey. Make the decision for a chance at a new beginning today by calling Desert Cove Recovery.
Ibogaine treatment has seen a rise in popularity in recent years, specifically when it comes to opioid addiction treatment. There are many claims made regarding the success rates of Ibogaine treatment, which uses a psychoactive compound found in several different plants to facilitate a detox experience for patients addicted to a wide-range of substances. While this treatment seems to show promise, it is important to be aware of the potential risks involved in undergoing this largely unproven and untested form of addiction treatment. Before diving into this treatment method, it’s important to answer the question: is Ibogaine safe?
The Trap of the Magic Pill Mindset
In the battle to overcome addiction, it can be tempting to believe that a simple magic pill or treatment will be the answer to the problem. Unfortunately, addiction is often the result of many factors in one’s life. Whether it be trauma, a genetic predisposition to certain substances, social influences, or other co-occurring disorders, addiction can stem from many root causes, something which a simple treatment modality such as Ibogaine will not fully address.
To quote from Harvard Medical School professor Dr. Bertha Madras: “People think there is going to be a magic pill that’s going to erase addiction, and that’s just not reality. What they should not be desperate for is a quick fix.” While certain treatment methods can be useful in the process of overcoming addiction, a holistic, multi-faceted approach is the recommended way to address an addiction, as it will incorporate each issue which is contributing to the dependence.
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The Dangers of Ibogaine Treatment
Ibogaine has been promoted recently as an alternative therapy to traditional methods, specifically as an option for opioid addiction treatment. Some medical professionals believe that Ibogaine inhibits the reuptake of serotonin, and that it can not only prevent a person from experiencing dangerous withdrawals, but that it can also reduce a person’s desire to use the substance again.
It is claimed that the spiritual aspects of this substance induce a sense of introspection which also leads to relief from addictive cravings, as a person will have an increased degree of perspective after their Ibogaine experience. This is the result of the fact that Ibogaine is an intense, hallucinogenic drug that can last up to 24 hours. Ibogaine can cause physical responses such as dry mouth, nausea and vomiting, muscle coordination issues, as well as extreme levels of dehydration.
In addition to the physical symptoms a person may experience as a result of taking Ibogaine, the drug can also bring on intense emotional reactions, many of which can be difficult for some individuals to process. If a practitioner is not able to effectively help guide a patient through their experience, Ibogaine can become a terrifying experience, fraught with uncertainty and unclear solutions.
An Uncertain, Unproven Treatment for Addiction
While Ibogaine seems to show promise as a treatment option for addiction, there is simply not enough data to say for sure whether this is a reliable and effective modality. A patient who decides to take the chance and try Ibogaine as a method for curing their addiction must rely on a certain degree of faith, as there is an absence of proven, time-tested evidence to fall back on in terms of how effective this drug is.
Because Ibogaine is listed as a schedule 1 drug in the United States, there are no Ibogaine clinics available stateside where a person can seek treatment. Instead, individuals are forced to go to Mexico and other countries where Ibogaine is allowed, but still not has heavily regulated as it would be in the US. While some clinics may claim to offer a trusted, safe environment for patients to detox within while using Ibogaine, this process is undoubtedly risky and involves a great level of inconvenience for the person who decides to go this route.
In order to answer the question: is Ibogaine safe, we must look at the potential risks inherent in this treatment option. According to a study conducted by the National Institutes of Health, Ibogaine affects the cardiovascular system and there have been alarming reports of life-threatening complications, as well as sudden death cases associated with the administration of Ibogaine. The most likely cause of these sudden death cases was cardiac arrhythmias, showcasing the potential downsides which can impact a patient if they don’t consider all of their current health conditions.
Is Ibogaine Safe?
Ibogaine is an unknown, mostly untested treatment option which has a long way to go before it can be considered a safe option for patients seeking relief from their drug addiction. The most effective treatment options are always those that address the confluence of factors which can make up the reasons for why a person becomes addicted. Magic pills are an intriguing idea to entertain, but the truth is that they are simply not a realistic outcome for people seeking relief from their addiction.
Arizona Rehabs Discuss the History of Opioid Addiction
There’s no doubt that our country is in the throws of a crisis. How did opioid addiction begin? Let’s take a look at the history of opioid addiction and how Arizona rehabs are trying to help.
There is reliable evidence of opium use as far back as 3,400 B.C. The opium poppy was called “joy plant,” and it spread from Mesopotamia to Assyria, Egypt and the Mediterranean. In 460 B.C., Hippocrates acknowledged its usefulness. Alexander the Great introduced it to Persia and India, and Arab traders took it to China. The Opium Wars were fought in China from 1839 to 1860.
Opium’s power to alleviate pain has resulted in thousands of years of abuse. In modern history, famous opiate users who battled addiction include Charles Dickens, Edgar Allan Poe, Florence Nightingale, Billie Holiday, Janis Joplin, Elvis Presley and River Phoenix.
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The History of Opioid Addiction in the U.S.
Opiates are an unfortunate part of American history. With the advent of synthetic opioids, the problem only got worse:
The armies on both sides of the American Revolutionary War gave wounded soldiers opium. In his final years, Benjamin Franklin took it for a painful bladder stone that had tormented him for years.
Morphine was first isolated in 1803, and Merck & Co. took over commercial production in 1827.
Morphine and other opiates were widely used by the time of the Civil War. An alarming number of veterans were hopelessly hooked following the conflict.
Heroin was first made from morphine in 1874. As a cough suppressant, it was hailed as a wonder drug. Bayer Corp. launched it commercially in 1898. Heroin increased in popularity when users discovered that injecting the drug enhanced its effects.
Doctors were alarmed by climbing rates of drug addiction in the early 1920s. Heroin was made illegal in 1924.
World War II gave rise to nerve block clinics; anesthesiologists administered injections to treat pain without surgery. The clinics operated during the ‘50s and ‘60s.
President Gerald Ford set up a task force to study drug addiction in the 1970s. The focus shifted from marijuana and cocaine trafficking to the heroin epidemic.
Painkillers like Percocet and Vicodin were already becoming a problem by the late ‘70s. Many doctors were reluctant to prescribe them.
Dr. Hershel Jick of Boston University School of Medicine disagreed there was a problem. After analyzing almost 12,000 patients who’d been treated with narcotics, Jick concluded that addiction to opioids was rare in patients with no history of substance abuse. A pain-management specialist, Dr. Russell Portenoy, studied 38 patients six years later and also declared that opioid maintenance therapy was safe.
The two studies sparked a discussion that lasted into the early 1990s. Pain management became a priority for patients.
Every year in the early 1990s, the number of prescriptions for painkillers increased by 2 to 3 million. Then, from 1995 to 1996, the one-year increase was 8 million.
Purdue Pharma launched OxyContin in 1996. One year later, prescriptions of all opioid painkillers on the market increased by 11 million.
The Joint Commission is a nonprofit group that accredits medical facilities. In 2000, as part of doctors’ required continuing education, the commission published a book that cited studies in which there was “no evidence that addiction is a significant issue when persons are given opioids for pain control.” It expressed the opinion that doctors’ concerns about addiction were “inaccurate and exaggerated.”
The book was sponsored by Purdue Pharma.
Dr. David W. Baker with the Joint Commission later remarked, “There is no doubt that the widely held belief that short-term use of opioids had low risk of addiction was an important contributor to inappropriate prescribing patterns for opioids and the subsequent opioid epidemic.”
Purdue Pharma was charged in 2007 with misbranding and downplaying OxyContin’s high potential for addiction. Three executives pleaded guilty, and Purdue settled with the government for $635 million.
In 2010, the manufacturers of OxyContin released a new formula that contained an abuse deterrent. It was supposed to be more difficult to crush, inject or snort the product. According to a study published in the New England Journal of Medicine, 24 percent of abusers reported being able to get around the tamper-resistant measures. One participant in the study said that most former OxyContin users had switched to heroin. It was cheaper and easier to get.
Portenoy, one of the doctors who insisted in the 1980s that opioid therapy was safe, later said, “Clearly if I had an inkling of what I know now then, I wouldn’t have spoken in the way that I spoke. It was clearly the wrong thing to do.”
In 2016, the Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention began taking steps to address the opioid crisis.
As of 2018, several states, including Florida, Nevada, North Carolina, North Dakota, Tennessee and Texas, have sued pharmaceutical companies for their role in the epidemic. Cities that have sued include Chicago, Cincinnati, Dallas, Indianapolis and Seattle.
How Arizona Rehabs Can Help
The history of opioid addiction is a grim one. Substance abuse is a serious brain disease that affects people with all different backgrounds.
Getting clean for good requires professional help. Like many other Arizona rehabs, we at Discovery Cove Recovery are committed to helping people like you reclaim their lives. Call today to speak to an experienced, caring staff member.
Increase Insurance Coverage for Addiction to Lower Risk of Opioid Deaths
Patients who are living with an opioid addiction and want to get help shouldn’t be denied access to treatment by their health insurance providers. This statement was one of the new policy recommendations co-authored by Professor Claudio Nigg, from the Office of Public Health Studies, University of Hawaii at Mānoa.
Lack of Full Coverage for Addiction Treatment a Barrier
The most likely reason people who want, but don’t get, addiction treatment is that government and private insurance policies don’t cover the cost of getting help, according to a statement posted June 27, 2018, on the Society of Behavioral Medicine’s website.
Professor Nigg explained, “To fight the opioid addiction epidemic that is ravaging the US today, policymakers need to increase Medicaid funding for addiction treatment and declare the opioid epidemic to be a national emergency, and not just a public health emergency.”
On a typical day in the United States, 3,900 people start taking a prescription opioid medication for non-medical reasons. Dozens of people die each day from an opioid overdose. In 2016, 77 people died from an opioid overdose in Hawaii, according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse.
Medication-Based Treatment for Opioid Addiction
Research has shown that medication-based treatment (MAT) is one approach for clients living with opioid addiction. It includes two components.
First, clients take medication to decrease cravings for drugs (such as oxycodone, morphine and heroin). They also attend behavioral modification therapy (“talk therapy”), which helps them change their thinking and actions.
Funding for Counseling Needed Along with Medications
Professor Nigg points out that while many insurance programs will pay for the medication, getting funding for counseling is much more difficult. He points out that people need the talk therapy, not just the medications to be treated properly for their addiction.
Nigg is an expert in the behavioral health science field. He has studied theories of behavioral change throughout his career and has conducted research on the motivations for people to take part in healthier living strategies.